The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Cambridge Select Women's Open Toe Strappy Crystal Rhinestone Stiletto Heel Dress SandalThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Converse Ka-11 Trainers Navy WhiteTSLA TF-T330-NVC_Men 9.5 D(M) Men's Outdoor Sneakers Trail Running shoes T330 Men's Ankle Work Boot Casual Simple and Comfortable Faux Fleece Inside Retro High Top BootOfficial Ben Sherman Gustarvo Trainers Mens Athleisure Footwear shoes Sneakersgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Quiksilver - Grebe - AQYS300076XCKCand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Globe Encore 2 - ENCORECHARCOALMen's Leisure Classic Work Boots Leather Business Casual Breathable shoes Round Toe Lace Up Low Top (color Apricot, Size 7 D(M) US)We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Men's New Leather shoes Business Casual Formal shoes Spring Fall Comfortable Wear-Resistant Leather shoes,A,40U'C Mens air max 95 Running shoesMerrell Women's Bare Access Flex 2 SneakerAdidas Originals Men's Superstar Basketball Sneaker, White Black White, 3.5 M US I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Taos Womens Rubber Soul Wash Sneaker Pink), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Spring Models Men's shoes Business Real Pig Skin Fashion Leisure Sneakers Wear Resistant Breathable Motion Running shoes Personality Wild Tide shoes 38-44), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Brooks Womens Adrenaline GTS 18and BONGZUO Men Leather Oxford shoes, Set Foot England Pointed Leather shoes Business Dress A Pedal Work shoes, YMJT18-00). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Vans Atwood Sidewall Logo shoes - Sailor bluee Red-UK 8Donald J Pliner Women's Cory Sneakerduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Merona Men's Elvis Adult LoafersDRKA Men's Soft Toe Work Boots,Waterproof Industrial and Construction Working shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Tiger Safety CSA Men's 6 Inch Lightweight Waterproof Work Safety Boots - 7666Men Chelsea Boots Autumn and Winter Leather Martin Boots Desert High-top shoes Men's Wedding BootsAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Men's shoes Knitting Fall Top Sneakers Fashion Elastic Socks shoes Inner Increased Hiking shoes Fitness & Cross Training shoes,B,42Samson XL 7765 S1P Black Composite Toe Cap Metal Free Safety Sneakers Tennis shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Men's shoes, Spring Casual shoes 2019 Sneakers Running shoes Students Tide shoes Wild Sports Male Coconut shoes,B,40Adrienne Vittadini Women's Georgino Pump HAPPYSHOP(TM British Style Men's Croco Leather Tassel Oxfords Derbies Slip-on Dress shoes BlackSK Studio Mens Loafers shoes Casual Genuine Cow Leather Comfort Slip On Lace Up Driving shoesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Salming T1 Women's Trail Running shoesNaturalizer Women's Frances Wide Clf Riding Bootfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Magnum Men's Response III 8.0 BootMen's shoes Knitting Low-Top Sneakers Full Palm Air Cushion Trail Running shoes Casual Daily Walking shoes Fall & Winter New,Black,39 There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeFlash shoes Luminous LED Fluorescent shoes USB Charging colorful Lights Ghost Step Dance shoes Breathable Sweat (color A, Size 40EU)Dig dog bone Men's Combat Martin Boots Lace Up Genuine Leather Outsole Ankle Military Motorcycle Work shoes Outdoor Hiking Walking.Hi-Tec Outdoor shoes OX Discovery Low I WP MenDeer Stags Men's Times-Smith Plain-Toe Oxford shoes Brown At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Globe Black Inkerman Waterproof JacketMen's Boots, Fall Winter Military Boots High-Top Boot Martin Boots Plus Velvet Keep Warm Tooling Desert Boots Outdoor Boot Walking Boot Hiking Boot Comfortable Tooling Boot XUEtherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Geox Women's Vega E Leather Sandal).Laforst Men's Clay Slip Resistant Slip On Work SneakerCasual shoes Men's shoes 2019 Spring New Business Board shoes Male Korean Version of Driving Flat shoes Soft (color Black, Size 39) However,Ailj Snow Boots, Men's Leather Padded Plush Warm Boots Flat Waterproof Short Boots Non-Slip Cotton shoes (3 colors) (color Brown, Size 39 EU 7 US 6 UK 24.5cm JP)Jane and the shoes Women's Lottie Lug Sole Loafer I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Sam Edelman Women's Eleanor Dress Sandal

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