The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. T-JULY Vintage Women Pumps Genuine Leather Mules Pointed Toe High Heels Sandal Party Wedding shoes for Spring SummerThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,U-lite Women's Winter Warm Cozy Shearling Wool Suede House Slipper, Warm Wool Slippers for WomenMerrell Men's Burnt Rock Tura Vent shoes Cambridge Select Women's Open Toe Slip-On Crisscross Strappy Faux Fur Flatform Wedge Slide SandalSkechers Mens Go Run 600 55081 Sneakergenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, The Fix Women's Morgan Block-Heel Ankle Strap Dress Pumpand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. MUMUWU Men's Faux Leather Beach Slippers Casual Non-slip Soft Sole Sandals shoes Adjustable Backless guessJSlides Women's Papper Fashion Sneaker BlackWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

New Balance Women's WW813 Hook and Loop Walking shoes

I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Z.L.F Men's Pointed Toe Business shoes Smooth PU Leather shoes Splice Vamp Slip-on Breathable Perforation Oxfords shoesSkechers for Work Women's D'Lite Slip Resistant Toliand Composite Toe Work shoesBalaMasa Womens Buckle Non-Marking No-Closure Urethane Boots ABL10540Soda Womens Two-Strap Low Heel Flat Slip-On Slide Sandal I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Capelli New York Zebra Patterned Ladies Flip Flops), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Premier Standard - Women's Strappy Chunky Block High Heel - Formal, Wedding, Party Simple Classic Pump), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Stacy Adams Mens Ardell Slip Resistant Plain Toe Oxford Oxfordand INMONARCH Mens Natural color Indian Wedding shoes MJ0152). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Kenneth Cole REACTION Mens Rest is History Slip-On LoaferMingDe Sports Women's High Top Canvas Lace up Gym shoes Trainers Sneakersduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Diba True Show Tunes Women's BootAdeeSu Womens Platform Casual Round-Toe Slip-Resistant Buckle Urethane Boots SXC01915Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Kenneth Cole New York Mens Light JOLT OxfordsDELIGHT-1065, 6 Heel 1 3 4 Peep Toe Mid-Calf BootAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Seychelles Womens Total Relaxation Slide SandalAlibress Men's Water shoes Lightweight Quick Dry Aqua Beach shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Women's Mesh Slip On Loafer Casual Flats Walking Espadrille SneakersSkechers Women's Meridian-no Worries Trainers Circus by Sam Edelman Womens Emilia Heeled SandalWomen Sandals High Heels Women shoes Sexy Pumps Women Wedding shoesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: MEIZOKEN Women's High Heel Open Toe Platform Wedges Sandals Comfort Suede Anti-Slip Party Slide SlippersTiandaoMXL Men Drive Loafers for Casual and Refreshing Breathable Genuine Leather Soft Dress shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.PUMA Unisex Adults' Basket Classic Gum Deluxe TrainersTINGLEY Men's Ultra Lightweight Snow Boot There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeElsa Wilcox Women Lace Up Perforated Chunky Mid Heel Vintage Dress Oxford Pumps Round Toe Platform Oxford shoesFINDYOU 2019 Large Size 32-48 Fashion Mary Janes Square high Heels Women shoes Woman Black Girls Date Pumps.SAFETOE Mens Steel Toe Work Boots - M8356 Waterproof Leather Safety Boots Slip on Safety shoes for Women1TO9 Womens Chunky Heels Buckle Peep-Toe Suede Heeled Sandals MJS02887 At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Spring Step Womens Nava Wedge SandalReebok Womens Classic Harman Sneakertherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (1TO9 Womens Boots Closed-Toe Kitten-Heels Solid Warm Lining Waterproof Smooth Leather Outdoor Urethane Cushioning Urethane Boots MNS02559).AdeeSu Womens Fashion Slip-Resistant Buckle Urethane Boots SXC01808AdeeSu Ladies Chunky Heels Platform Zipper Round Toe Frosted Boots However,Nike Men Zoom Assersion BlackAdidas Messi 15.2 FG AG Mens Soccer Cleats I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.PUMA Mens 365 Ff Ct Sneaker

Katy Perry Womens The Kenzie Heeled Sandal Adrianna Papell Womens Georgi-lc Platform Dress Sandal

Uerescha Women's Lace Slip On Pumps Super Breathable High Heels Wedding Party shoes