The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. KEEN Womens Terradora MID WP HikingThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Cafèblack Kda217, Women's Slip OnKenneth Cole New York Men's Seize The Moment Fashion Sneaker Genuine Patent Leather Boots Men Work Hiking Chelsea Cowboy Military Leather Boots Oxford Boots with Side Zip + Lace UpWomens Lace Up Fashion Casual Pointy Stiletto Boots GIGI-11 (8.5, Black)generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Leather Men's shoes Set Foot shoes Men's Peas shoes Casual shoes (color Yellow, Size 41)and molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Men Pointed Toe Oxford England Dress shoes New Crocodile Pattern Derby Fashion Wedding shoesAdidas Originals Courtvantage Adicolor Mens Trainers SneakersWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,High-Heeled Slipper Leather shoes Thin shoes Soft Leather Office Woker High-Heeled shoes Roman Style(9cm) (color White, Size 35)El Naturalista Unisex Adults' N5281 Vaquetilla Plome El Viajero Slip On TrainersPUMA Mens Funist Lo Nu Fashion SneakerDr. Brinkmann Womens-Tiefbett red 701012-41 I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Merrell Mens All Out Blaze Sieve Congreen Athletic Sandals), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Ladies Booties, Casual Leather Heel Women's Rubber Thick Heel Fashion Martin Boots (color A, Size 37)), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Womens Ankle Boots, Leather Ladies Boots Pointed Zipper Boots Fashion Rough High Heels Wedding Party & Evening Dress shoes (color Black, Size 38)and Baffin Men's Ambush Hunting Boot). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Maciejka Women Flat Slipper bluee, (blue-Kombi) 2960A-34 00-5Infants Jordan 1 Flight 4 Prem BT Black 5.5 UKduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Van Eli Laren Women's OxfordFashion Women's shoes Spring and Summer New Thick with Shallow shoes Female Korean Version of The Sexy Pointed Single shoes with Work shoes Women (color RED, Size 35)Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Nine Seven Genuine Leather Women's Pointed Toe Mid Heel Side Zip Handmade Lace Up Graceful Ankle BootsHummel Unisex Adults' Victory Low-Top Sneakers, Light bluee White, 8 UKAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Women's Leather Boots, European American Style Springtime Increased Casual Booties High Heel Women's Boots Flat Single Boot (color A, Size 34)Women's shoes Autumn British Style Leather shoes Casual shoes College Style Single shoes (color Black Pink, Size 40).

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Hesion Women Height Increasing shoes Fashion Elevator Sneaker Casual shoes - 2.76 Inches Taller - BlackNike WMNS Air Max 95 Womens Av8428-001 Nine Seven Women's Suede Leather Sexy Mid Heel Round Toe Knee High Boots - Handmade Casual Zipper Stretch Winter BootsPearl Izumi Men's EM Road M 3 Running shoesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Carrera Jeans Men's Ronnie Sneakers CAM825000 - TanSuede Pure color High Heeled Over The Knee Winter Boots Slip On Chunky Heel shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.T-JULY Autumn Cow Leather Air Mesh Sneakers for Women Platform Lace up Round Toe Causal Wedges Luxury Vulcanized shoesFrye Women's Ivy Slip Sneaker There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeSOLE SOCIETY Womens TwilaFashion Open Toe High-heeled Sandals Sexy 12CM High Heels Sandals Party Dress Women shoes Black Plus Size.Roper Cowbabies Daniel bluee BootsHoxekle Women Knee High Thin High Heel Winter Long Snow Boot Round Toe Thick Platform Suede Black Brown Faxu Rabbit Fur Warm shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Nine West Women's Speakup Ballet FlatJosef Seibel pinklie 27 - Brandy (Brown) Womens shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Nine Seven Genuine Leather Women's Round Toe Low Heel Classy Handmade Dress Knee High Boots).Nine Seven Genuine Leather Women's Round Toe Chunky Heel Handmade Mid Calf BootWomens Ankle Boots Retro Comfort Warm shoes Velcro Low Heel Casual Booties 2018 Winter However,WLJSLLZYQ Le Fu shoes British shoes Fashion shoes Slip-on shoesGeox shoes U824GC 0ME22 C4002 I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.IWlxz Women's Nappa Leather Summer Casual Sandals Chunky Heel Peep Toe White bluee Almond

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