The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Merrell shoes Moab 2 LTR Mid Gore-Tex J18419 Beluga UK 11.5The Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Frye Womens Amy Peep Lace BootTahari Womens TA-Advice Heeled Sandal Nike Women's City Loop shoes (10.5) Black Black-WhiteNike W Air Max 270 Flyknit Womens Ah6803-200generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Reebok Womens R Crossfit Nano 7 Sneakerand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Naot Footwear Women's Alameda Sandal BlackLa Canadienne Women's Isadora Knee-High BootWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,KEEN Womens Durand II MID WP BootsMade In Italia - PietroReebok - Royal Cmplt CLN LX - CN0432Women's Fish Mouth Open Toe High Heel Single shoes Waterproof Platform Metal Heel High Heel Single shoes Stage Catwalk shoes (Heel Height 22 cm) I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Men's Classic Chukka Boots Low Heel Strap Oxford shoes Non-Slip Comfortable Men's Boots), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Clarks Men's Armada Spanish Loafer), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, ANA LUBLIN Alicia_Bordeaux Ankle Bootsand Women's Dansko, Marcia Mid Heel Ankle Boots). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Merrell Womens Murren MID WTPF Hiking BootsInov8 Roclite 325 GTX Trail Running shoes - SS17-9during experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Adidas Stan Smith Collegiate - CQ2195Adidas Predator Lz TRX Fg BootsLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? CLERO& Mixing Pointed Toe Lady pu Leather Shallow Woman High-Heeled Pumps Sexy Slip-onMuck Boots Womens Tremont Emily Bond Print Wellington Black Grey Dogs Size UK 5 EU 38And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Men's Business shoes Dress Leather shoes Retro Buckle Set Foot Mengke Men's shoesWalking Cradles Women's Heist Boot.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Camper Womens Serena K200490 Mary Jane FlatSoftinos Isleen Womens Soft Leather Ankle Boots Official Yonex Power Cushion Badminton Indoor Court shoes Mens White Trainers SneakersLucky Brand Women's Larinaa Wedge SandalThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Adidas Messi 15.3 TF Mens Turf Soccer CleatsSteve Madden Mens Gell 6factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.NorthEsther Horsehair Platform Sandals Wedge High Heel shoes Woman Star Style Ankle Strap Gladiator Sandals Summer Dress shoesNew shoes Men's Korean Version of The Set of Feet Leather Men's Casual shoes Black Fashion Trend Men's shoes Large Size Men's shoes (color Brown, Size 38) There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeGenuine Leather Crystal Snow Boots Womens Winter Slip On Flat Warm Thick Fur Lined Ankle BootiesARIAT Men's Sport Sidewinder Work Boot, golden Grizzly, 11 E US.Soludos Womens Braided Slide Sandal Flat SandalSorbern Soft Pu Thigh High Boots for Women High Heels Thick Platform shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Tizian Women Pumps Austin 01 red, (red) T39601984 400Adidas Galaxy Trail Running shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Orthofeet Women's Lake Charles Oxfords).Sam Edelman Women's Rylan BootGeox PERICLE U620RE Size 45 black However,Adidas Samba OG Men's shoes Cloud White Collegiate Green Crystal White b75680CALTO Men's Invisible Height Increasing Elevator shoes - Black Premium Leather Lace-up Formal Oxfords - 3.2 Inches Taller - Y40552 I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real the Bear Women's Selma S in Black, 38 EU

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